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The Silk Route - World Travel: Uxmal, Mexico
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Mexico: Uxmal
May 2012

Uxmal: Pyramid of the Sorcerer

Uxmal is stunning right from the entrance at the spectacular oval "Pyramid of the Sorcerer". Followed by amazing stone carving, especially the serpents, in the "Quadrangle of the Nuns" and "Governor's Palace", massive pyramids to climb and the beautiful pierced stonework roof comb of the "Dovecote".

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror

The Englishman Frederick Catherwood was an avid explorer of ancient antiquities and came to Central America with his friend John Lloyd Stephens, an American lawyer equally fascinated by ancient civilisations. They had both explored historic European and Egyptian locations such as Rome, Jerusalem and Thebes but in 1839 they travelled together to discover the lost world of the Maya.1

Catherwood's meticulous drawings - he was an architect by training - remain a highly valuable resource for those studying these ancient sites.

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Pyramid of the Sorcerer
The entrance on the staircase was made by archaeologists.

 

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Human head emerging from between a serpent's jaws, Uxmal Late Classic (800 - 950 A.D.) in the Museum of Anthropology and History at Merida. It comes from the lower palace in the western part of the Pyramid of the Sorcerer partially obscured by the steps installed at a later stage of construction.

The entrance to Uxmal is probably the most impressive of any of the sites we visited. Immediately one is confronted by the massive "Pyramid of the Sorcerer" - a spectacular 35m high oval-shaped pyramid. The name comes from a mistranslation of "shaman".

 

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror.
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
On both sides of the steps a procession of 12 Chaac masks.

The orientation of the pyramid is east-west - the broad great staircase is on the east face. The staircase on the opposite side is much steeper and leads to two temples, one above the other.

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
The lower temple is structured as an enormous mask with the entrance as the mouth; masks of the rain god, Chaac, adorn each front corner.
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Above the doorway of the lower temple is the remains of a pedestal supported by two crouching figures, perhaps it once supported a statue of the king.

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
A restored chultun in front of the east face of the oval pyramid, very similar to the Codz Poop chultun at Kabah.
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Close-up of lowest mask on the right hand side of the staircase. The eyes are beautifully modelled. The left ear is embedded in the wall of the staircase almost certainly due to later construction work. The trunk curves up and over very differently to the ones at Kabah.
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Multiple renditions of Chaac, though I'm not convinced tying the waste chute to them is a good idea!
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
As usual, plenty of iguanas enjoying the heat..
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
The west face with a cylindrical altar in the Quadrangle of the Birds directly in front.

The pyramid and its temples are covered with many Chaac masks. a line ascending either side of the staircase, on the corners and one set in the stairs just before the lower temple.

Work was being carried out on the temples so we couldn't climb this pyramid.

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Reconstructed south building, Quadrangle of the Birds.
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror

 

The area on the west side of the Pyramid of the Sorcerer is called the Quadrangle of the Birds because of some small bird sculptures on one building. It dates from between the eighth and twelfth centuries A.D.

The south building is very unusual for Mayan architecture. On both north and south sides of the building is a colonnaded arcade with classic Puuc columns and square capitals.

 

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
The reconstructed south building in the Quadrangle of the Birds from the south.
Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Looking west: on the left the north edge of the Pyramid of the Sorcerer, directly in front the Nunnery Annex with the buildings of the Quadrangle of the Nuns behind.

 

More classic Puuc architectural elements can be seen all around. North of the Bird Quadrangle is a building which has been called the Nunnery Annex, because behind is the Quadrangle of the Nuns. This building has the most elegant, tall, corbel-vaulted passage.

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Another fine corbel-arched passageway from the Quadrangle of the Birds to the Quadrangle of the Nuns.

There is another classic Puuc corbel arch leading west from the Bird Quadrangle to the Quadrangle of the Nuns.

The Quadrangle of the Nuns dates rom 900-1000 A.D. and has some very interesting carving: snakes, faces, Chaac masks, human figures and geometrical designs.

 

Uxmal Pyramid of the Sorceror
Quadrangle of the Nuns and the Pyramid of the Sorcerer
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Remains of red hand prints on the walls of the south entrance to the Quadrangle of the Nuns - the meaning of these is unclear.

We entered the quadrangle via the south staircase and arched passage - typical red hand prints on the walls. The quadrangle of buildings was built on  an elevated platform and would have been visible from far away.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Quadrangle of the Nuns seen from the Governor's Palace.
The corbel-arched south entrance at the top of a wide flight of steps leads into the quadrangle where the first sight is of the north building with its wide central staircase. The central entrance of the building is much wider than the others.

The north building has a wide central staircase, at the level of the platform flanked by large rooms fronted by four square columns.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
The western end of the north building, Quadrangle of the Nuns.

 

The front facade appears to have been plain on the lower half, even in antiquity,2 while the upper portion was completely decorated from end to end with a stack of masks above each doorway which project above the roof line. The mask stacks differ in style and complexity, the most complex is that above the central doorway. between the stacks are geometric carvings and small sculptures. At the east and west end of the building a typical stack of Chaac masks on the corners, only the east end stack is preserved.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
At the top of the central stack a remnant of one of the goggle eyes of Tlaloc can be seen - he seems also to have a moustache!

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Hut and mask sculpture above doorway 5.

The north building has eleven doorways, the central one much wider than the others. Only six stacks remain to any degree: largish ones over doorways 2,4,6 (centre) and 11 and a smaller ones over doorways 3 and 5 - counting from the left (west). Each doorway leads to two rooms, one in front and another behind. The building also has doors on the east and west ends which also lead to two rooms.2

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Mask stack above doorway 2
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Mask stack above doorway 4
Quite different eyelids and all have fangs rather than teeth.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Mast stack over doorway 11 with the most complete Tlaloc mask at the top.

The central doorway mask stack once had four Chaac masks surmounted by a mask of Tlaloc, the Teotihuacan rain god - one of the most widely depicted gods in Mexico. He is characterised by goggle eyes and fangs. Some of the Chaac masks have rows of curved teeth, others a set of large fangs.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Hut and mask sculpture above doorway 3.

Above doorways 3 and 5 are delightful sculptures of the entrances to domestic huts, complete with thatched roofs. Above the hut entrances three double-headed snakes are carved - one whose body is actually hidden behind the thatch.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Three double-headed snakes above the hut above doorway 3.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Two jaguar sculpture above doorway 5.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Tlaloc mask above doorway 11.

Below the hut on the stack above doorway five is a small sculpture of back-to-back jaguars with their tails entwined. These types of sculptures adorn the facade of the buildings at Uxmal. Many of the smaller ones are made from sculpting the end of a stone plug which is slotted into the facade but from which the sculpture projects.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Small sculpture of a seated, bound captive on the frieze between doorways 3 and 4.

The mask stack above doorway 11 is topped by the best-preserved mask of Tlaloc - big eyes, round ears and a moustache!

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
East end of the north building, Quadrangle of the Nuns.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Small sculpture of a human-headed bird on the frieze between doorway 11 and the east corner of the north building.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
North east corner of the Quadrangle of the Nuns.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns

 

The east building of the quadrangle is a beautiful exercise in geometric carving and symmetry.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns

The central doorway of the east building is wider than the other four and, like all the doorways of the quadrangle's buildings, beautifully recessed.

A shallow flight of steps lead up to the building which has five doorways. As with all the buildings in this quadrangle, the facade is plain at the level of the doorways with a decorative frieze above. However, in the east building this is restrained and elegant.

bound captive
Carving of a naked bound captive found at Uxmal. Merida Museum of Anthropology and History. Classic (300 900 A.D.)
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
North west corner of the east building. Stack of three Chaac masks with a snake head sculpture projecting above and tortoise below.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the NunsAbove the central doorway.

The decorative frieze consists of a background of carved crosses on which are superimposed, above each doorway apart from the central one, a trapezoidal arrangement of double-headed serpents with a small owl head sculpture centralised at the upper level of each.



Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Owl head sculpture.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
East building, Quadrangle of the Nuns.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Chaac masks on the north west corner of the east building.
Within the mouths, sheltered from the elements, traces of the original red paint remain.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Detail of serpent heads on the east building decorative frieze.
There appears to be red paint behind the trapezoidal sculpture but not on the main body of the building - this could be due to the protective effect of the double headed serpents shielding this part from the weather.

Above the central doorway there is a stack of three Chaac masks surmounted by three double-headed serpents and there are vertical mask stacks at each corner.

The decoration and design of the three masks on the stacks and above the central doorway are exactly the same. For instance the top mask has fangs and crosses on the eyebrows, the eyes formed by square blocks on either side.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
The double-headed snake sculptures have protected the red paintwork behind the sculpted stone.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
South face of the east building in the Quadrangle of the Nuns, seen from the Quadrangle of the Birds.


Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
East and south buildings.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Looking south along the front face of the east building.
This view shows the different widths and steepness of the steps in front of the building. It is thought these might once have been used for ceremonial purposes.3
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns

 

The five doorways each lead to two rooms, one behind the other. The rooms accessed through the central doorway also have a shrine room at each end.3

 

The south corner stack of masks on the front face of the east building is the only one where the curved trunks are preserved to any degree - they curve in quite a different manner to those at Kabah.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Hut and mask above doorway of the south building.

The south building of the quadrangle stands on the same level as the courtyard; the east and west buildings of the quadrangle are higher on the platform and the north building higher still. The unrecessed doorways are surmounted by hut and mask sculptures. Perhaps the hut doorways once held small statues. The masks do not have the usual curving trunk of Chaac but something that does resemble a moustache so maybe Tlaloc?

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
South east corner of the Quadrangle of the Nuns.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
West building, Quadrangle of the Nuns.
The vertical lines on the lower half are makeshift supports.

In contrast the frieze of the west building is exuberantly carved from end to end. Again, the central doorway is wider than the others but it is surmounted not by a mast stack but a canopied alcove with a throne.

 

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
North west corner of the Quadrangle of the Nuns.

Either side of the central doorway are three further, narrower doors. The end doorways (1 and 7) have a hut and mask sculpture above, the next inner doorways (2 and 6) a stack of three Chaac masks and the doorways next to the central doorway (3 and 5) a niche for a sculpture. There is a stack of three Chaac masks at each corner. Each doorway leads again to a room with another behind.4

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
North end of the west building.

The most appealing feature of the frieze is the two head-to-tail snakes which wind their way across almost its full width.

These are rattlesnakes and their bodies twist in and out of the other decorative elements, sometimes behind a panel, other times their bodies horizontally above or below, and every now and then intertwining vertically.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Central section of the frieze of the west building.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns

Traditional Yucatec (of the Yucatan peninsula) thatched hut carving with mask above door 1 (southernmost door).
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Nicely preserved mask stack over door 6.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
On the central throne a sculpture of an aged turtle-man earth deity.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
A naked male figure with a jaguar  head head-dress and short sticks through the skin of the left thigh and a rather more delicate area of the anatomy!

 

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Figure in a boxing pose.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns





Left: The masks in each stack are framed by a series of open-jawed serpents with long, forked tongues.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Towards the left side are the ends of two snakes, the upper missing its rattle, the lower missing its head.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns

The sculpture above doorway 3 was a seated figure with a feathered head-dress or crown.
The long cylindrical blocks above are part of a snake body.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Towards the right side are the other ends of two snakes, here complete with rattle and head.

The rattle of one of the snakes is beautifully preserved. Only one serpent head remains and from within its jaws a masked human head emerges, the recurring symbol of rebirth.

Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Rattle and plume of feathers at the tail end of one of the feathered serpents.
Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns
Masked human face emerging from the snake's head. The bodies of the serpents are covered in feathers and are typical of renditions of Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent god, like Tlaloc an influence of central american cultures.

 

The Quadrangle of the Nuns must have been awe-inspiring when Uxmal was at its peak. As to what went on here, no one seems to know for sure. Perhaps each of the cell-like rooms housed a priestess, or was a shrine to a particular deity, or esteemed ancestor shrines, or royal rooms - whatever function they had, they were obviously an important part of Uxmal.

 

Uxmal ball court
One thing we could see at Uxmal was that the stone ring was decorated with glyphs.

South of the Quadrangle of the Nuns is the ball court. By the time we'd got to Uxmal, we'd seen many ball courts and this one was fairly typical.

Uxmal ball court
West side of the ball court with the only intact (restored) stone ring, snake sections lie in front, originally on the facade.

Two parallel structures separated by a playing space 10m by 34m. The structures each have a shallow sloping section at the edge of the playing space backed by a steeper, deep, high structure which may have been used by spectators.

Uxmal ball court
An unusual ballcourt ring from Uxmal in the museum at Merida. Late Classic (600 - 900 A.D.)

In the the centre of the wall, on the playing side, would have been a stone ring through which, it is thought, the heavy rubber ball was meant to be projected. Since hands and feet were not allowed to be used, only hips, arms and legs protected by thick padding, this would seem to be rather difficult. Only one of the rings remains.

Uxmal ball court
Ball court looking south to the elevated House of the Turtles and, behind on the left, the Governor's Palace.

There is another ball court ring of quite different design in Merida, unlike any other ballcourt ring that we saw. It is much thicker, with a relatively smaller hole and with a kneeling figure carved along one side.

Uxmal
The Governor's Palace is on the left, House of the Turtles in the foreground with the Great Pyramid behind.
Uxmal House of the Turtles
North face of the House of the Turtles. On the right, where there is a collapse of the building, an interior transverse vault can be seen.

South again is the House of the Turtles, oriented east-west, 30m by 10m. Quite restrained it has a beautiful colonnaded upper level decorated with turtles. The tightly packed columns are reminiscent of the wooden poles used in the walls of village homes.

Uxmal House of the Turtles
House of the Turtles, south and east faces.

Uxmal Governor's Palace
East facade of the Governor's Palace, Pyramid of the Sorcerer in the distance.
Uxmal Governor's Palace
Southern corbelled passage from the west.
Chaac mask stacks on the corners and a sculpture of an open-mouthed serpent on the lower moulding.

Doors on the east and west faces of the House of the Turtles lead to two rooms, one behind the other. A central southern doorway leads to three rooms, one behind the other with a possible north doorway in the north wall, opposite the south doorway. This type of room arrangement seems to be very common at Uxmal. There seems to be some confusion as to the number of doorways. A north doorway, for instance, is clearly visible, but questioned by experts.

Uxmal House of the Turtles
On the cornice are sculptures of turtles all around the building.

The sculptures of turtles march around the cornice of the building, the sole decorative elements. It is thought these mean that the building has something to do with the Mayan preoccupation with water.

Between Catherwood's two expeditions in 1839 and 1842 "... the whole of the centre had fallen in, and the interior was blocked up with the ruins of the fallen roof."1

The House of the Turtles sits at the north west corner of an elevated platform on which the Governor's Palace is located. Both date from 900 1000 A.D. The Great Platform is 187m by 170m and up to 12m high.

Uxmal House of the Governors
Maya portrait head.
House of the Governor, Uxmal, Mexico, AD 300-900.
Stucco, paint.
National Museum of the American Indian, NYC.
"This modeled stucco head from Uxmal is likely part of an architectural decoration, probably portraying a member of the ruling family or honoring an ancestor."

The palace is around 100m long and 12m wide, its main facade facing east, and is considered to be one of the greatest Mesoamerican buildings. The whole building is raised above the level of the great platform, reinforcing its importance within the complex of buildings.

Uxmal Governor's Palace
Southern corbelled passage.
The lower walls, which give it a graphic "Christmas tree" shape, were later additions. The original passages were inverted "V" shapes, dropping vertically, at the lower points, to the ground.

The building is divided into three sections by two corbel-arched passages, recessed from the front and rear facades. The north and south sections each have two recessed doorways, the central section has seven, and the central of these is wider than the others. There is also a doorway on the north and south faces. The two passages are open and have no doorways so that the three sections of the building are separated.

Uxmal Governor's Palace
Northern end of the Governor's Palace showing the true shape of a corbelled passage.

The doorways are all double-recessed, another indication of importance. The central section of the building is composed of rooms one behind the other, two entered from each of the end two doorways on each side, and one set of two long rooms entered by the central three doorways. The end sections of the building have a slightly more complex suite of rooms. When Catherwood explored Uxmal in 1839 all of the wooden door lintels had already decayed.1

Uxmal
Central and northern sections of the Governor's Palace and jaguar throne.
Uxmal Governor's Palace
South east corner of the central section showing the arrangement of Chaac masks: from the bottom of the corner stack a line of masks proceeds diagonally to the cornice then horizontally above a sculpted seated figure, bottom right of the photograph.

The decorated frieze runs around the whole of the building at the upper level and is intricately carved with over 15,000 mosaic pieces.5 Chaac masks are stacked on the corners and cover the whole of the east-facing frieze, running diagonally up to a line of masks on the cornice above a sitting figure then diagonally back down, the sequence repeated across all facade.5 The north, south and west friezes have mask stacks and geometrically arranged patterns on a latticework background.

Uxmal Governor's Palace
Enthroned figure with an elaborate feather head-dress.
Uxmal Governor's Palace
The figure over the central doorway of the Great Lord Chaak of Uxmal, seated on a semi-circular throne with a very elaborate feather head-dress. Behind are eight double-headed serpent bars with sky band bodies.
merida
Catherwood lithographs of Uxmal in Merida.

The carving above the central doorway is very elaborate and believed to be the greatest of the Uxmal rulers, Chaak. The sky band bodies of the double-headed serpents which form the background to this carving are decorated with images of objects in the sky such as constellations or planets. There are eight double-headed serpent bars, clearly seen from Frederick Catherwood's drawings from his expeditions in 1839.1

Uxmal
The Governor's Palace from the south west, the Pyramid of the Sorcerer behind.
Uxmal Governor's Palace
Shrine and double-headed jaguar throne in front of the east facade of the Governor's Palace.
Uxmal Governor's Palace
Jaguar throne from the east.

 

In front of the palace on the east side is a shrine which had an inverted conical stone, now tilted almost onto its side.

Beyond this is a platform with steps on all four sides leading to a double-headed jaguar throne. The two tails are wrapped around the centre of the throne and curled on top.

The paws are beautifully modelled, as are the faces and ears.

Over 900 offerings were found including jade earrings, spear heads and flint and obsidian knives.

 

Uxmal Governor's Palace
Jaguar throne from the north.
Uxmal Governor's Palace
Jaguar throne from the south.

Uxmal Governor's Palace
Uxmal Great Pyramid
Restored north face of the Great Pyramid with the Temple of the Turtles in front, seen from the Quadrangle of the Nuns.

The Great Pyramid, dating from the eighth century, sits at the south west corner of the Great Platform. Only the northern face of the pyramid has been restored. Measuring 80m long it rises 30m in a series of nine levels to the Temple of the Macaws.

Uxmal Great Pyramid
The Great Pyramid

 

Uxmal Great Pyramid
View north from the Great Pyramid left to right: Quadrangle of the Nuns, Temple of the Turtles, Pyramid of the Sorcerer and the Governor's Palace.

 

The grand staircase is very wide and very steep. Near the top a platform juts out from the centre of the steps.

The Temple of the Macaws at the top is unusual for Uxmal in that the lower portion of the wall is decorated with stone carving. Once there were three doorways but now only the central door remains, the other two have been filled in, probably to help maintain structural integrity.

Uxmal Great Pyramid
Temple of the Macaws
Uxmal Great Pyramid
Chaac mask stack north west corner Temple of the Macaws, upper mask still with unusual stone plug beside the trunk.
Uxmal Great Pyramid
Temple of the Macaws

There are Chaac mask stacks at each corner. One has as unusual stone plug at the side of the trunk. None of the other masks have this - perhaps it is a misplaced ear plug. Otherwise it looks awfully like a tusk!

A type of elephant did once roam Central and South America but it is said to have become extinct many thousands of years ago.

Also, between the jaws of the masks are carved human heads.

Uxmal Great Pyramid
Head between jaws of Chaac mask.
Uxmal Great Pyramid
Horizontal and vertical stones carved as crosses
are thought to represent entwined serpents.

The carving on the facade includes representations of entwined serpents and many reliefs of macaws, from which the temple derives its name.

Uxmal Great Pyramid
North east corner of the north face of the Temple of the Macaws.

 

Uxmal Great Pyramid
One of numerous rather worn reliefs of macaws or parrots on the temple facade
Uxmal Great Pyramid
The building obviously continued, set back from the main north facade.
Uxmal Great Pyramid
Human head between the jaws of a Chaac mask.
Uxmal Great Pyramid
Chaac mask modelled as a step in the inner room of the Temple of the Macaws

 

Within the central doorway of the temple the room has been blocked off with a wall but a very well-preserved Chaac mask step can be seen, much like those at the Codz Poop in Kabah.

West of the Great Pyramid there was once another cluster of palace-like buildings surrounding a courtyard. Only one of these is left to be seen today with substantial remains of a long building with what must once have been a beautiful roof comb. It is formed of nine stepped pierced triangles of stonework, the building nicknamed the House of the Doves for its similarity to a dovecote.

Each of the triangles once supported a sculpture of a human figure.

Uxmal House of the Doves
Uxmal House of the Doves
House of the Doves
Uxmal House of the Doves
House of the Doves seen from the Great Pyramid.

The structure has a central corbel-arched passageway. On either side on the south of the building, facing the courtyard, were a number of corbel-vaulted rooms.

Uxmal House of the Doves
House of the Doves

From the Great Pyramid there is an excellent view of the House of the Doves. More structures can be seen poking up above the forest canopy - it would take some time to explore what has already been excavated and restored!

References

  1. The Lost Cities of the Mayas - The life, art and discoveries of Frederick Catherwood. Artes de Mexico, 1999.
  2. Architecture, Restoration, and Imaging of the Maya Cities of UXMAL, KABAH, SAYIL, and LABNÁ: The Puuc Region: Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns, north building
  3. Architecture, Restoration, and Imaging of the Maya Cities of UXMAL, KABAH, SAYIL, and LABNÁ: The Puuc Region: Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns, east building
  4. Architecture, Restoration, and Imaging of the Maya Cities of UXMAL, KABAH, SAYIL, and LABNÁ: The Puuc Region: Uxmal Quadrangle of the Nuns, west building
  5. Architecture, Restoration, and Imaging of the Maya Cities of UXMAL, KABAH, SAYIL, and LABNÁ: The Puuc Region: Uxmal Governor's Palace